Guide to Making Homemade Organic Compost for Soil Health!

By - Emma Johnson

Updated on -

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Homemade organic compost turns kitchen scraps into plant superfoods! It’s a fun and easy way to help plants grow and reduce waste. Let’s explore how you can create magic in your backyard with homemade organic compost!

Transform kitchen scraps into garden gold with simple composting. Key to success: balance green and brown materials, maintain moisture, and aerate regularly. This eco-friendly practice enriches soil and reduces waste.

Understanding Compost Fundamentals

Homemade Organic Compost

Creating healthy homemade organic compost involves a clear understanding of its basic principles. Learn the basics to turn organic waste into healthy soil for your garden.

Defining Compost and Its Importance

Compost is made from broken-down organic things like kitchen scraps, yard waste, and other stuff that rots. It helps put nutrients back into the soil, making it better at holding water and more fertile.

Compost Benefits:

Soil EnrichmentCompost adds essential nutrients to the soil, reducing the need for chemical fertilizers​​​​​​.
Moisture RetentionImproves soil’s ability to retain water, helping in drought conditions​​.
Improved DrainageEnhances soil structure for better water drainage, reducing puddles after rain​​.
AerationEncourages soil microbes and worms, creating air pockets for healthier soil​​.
Nutrient AvailabilityIncreases the availability and delivery of nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium to plants​​.
Carbon SequestrationHelps remove carbon from the atmosphere, mitigating climate change impacts​​​​.
Waste ReductionSignificantly cuts down on landfill waste, reducing costs and emissions from waste processing​​​​.
Disease SuppressionReduces plant diseases and pests, promoting healthier plant growth​​.
Erosion PreventionHelps prevent soil erosion, protecting topsoil and reducing environmental damage​​.
Water QualityActs as a filter for stormwater, reducing pollutants and cleaning polluted soils​​​​.
Reduced EmissionsLowers the cost of gardening and food production and reduces landfill costs​​.
Economic SavingsLowers the cost of gardening and food production, and reduces landfill costs​​.
Health BenefitsHealthy soil leads to healthier food and fewer diseases; may also have mental health benefits​​​​​​.
Water ConservationCompost increases soil’s ability to retain moisture, reducing the need for frequent watering​​​​.

Breaking Down the Composting Process

Composting is when tiny organisms break down organic stuff into simpler parts. It needs a mix of green (nitrogen-filled) and brown (carbon-filled) materials, the right amount of water, and air. This helps turn waste into compost.

Key Phases:

  1. Initial Stage: Organic materials are collected and mixed.
  2. Active Stage: Microorganisms start the rapid decomposition.
  3. Curing Stage: The compost matures and is ready for use.

The Role of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen in Compost

The optimal composting process hinges on the balance of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Carbon acts as an energy source, while nitrogen supports microorganism’s growth.

Oxygen is needed for aerobic decomposition. This is when tiny organisms change organic materials into a stable, humus-like substance.

Balancing Carbon and Nitrogen:

  • Ideal ratio: 25-30 parts carbon to 1 part nitrogen.
  • Carbon-rich materials: Dry leaves, wood chips, and paper.
  • Nitrogen-rich materials: Grass clippings, food scraps, and coffee grounds.


  • Turning your compost pile introduces oxygen, essential for microbial activity.

By managing these parts well, your compost pile will quickly turn organic waste into good compost. This helps make your garden’s soil rich, and your plants grow well.

Setting Up Your Composting Area

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When establishing a composting station, consider location and containment essentials to optimize decomposition processes.

Choosing the Right Location

Pick a spot in your garden that’s easy to reach for putting stuff in the compost pile and good for keeping the right heat and airflow.

It should be easy to get to all year, near water for moisture, and have good drainage to stop too much water.

Find a balance between a sunny place, which heats the composter, and a partly shaded area to keep it from getting too dry.

  • Sunny spot: To accelerate composting with warmth
  • Partial shade: To prevent the pile from drying out
  • Good drainage: To manage moisture levels
  • Convenient access: For regular maintenance and waste addition
  • Near water source: For moisture balance

Types of Compost Bins and Tumblers

The type of container you choose for composting—like compost bins or tumblers—affects how well and easily you compost. Compost bins are fixed in one place and can be homemade or bought.

They’re good for big spaces, let air flow, and hold much organic waste. On the other hand, compost tumblers are closed, spinning containers.

They break down waste quickly because you turn them often. They’re great for small spaces or patios.

Compost Bins:

  • Materials: Wood, wire, or plastic
  • Capacity: Large volume for yard and kitchen waste
  • Aeration: Natural, through built-in gaps or manually turning

Compost Tumblers:

  • Ease of Use: Rotate to mix contents
  • Speed: Faster decomposition than stationary bins
  • Space: Ideal for limited space

To help your garden soil, think about how to prepare soil for an organic garden. This goes well with composting to make a rich, fertile garden bed.

Gathering and Managing Compost Materials

Essential to successful composting is the selection and balance of compost materials. Correctly managing these elements accelerates decomposition and produces high-quality compost.

Green and Brown Materials

Green materials have a lot of nitrogen. Add grass clippings, fresh leaves, and vegetable scraps to your compost for important nutrients.

They break down fast, giving the compost proteins and amino acids. It’s important to mix them with brown materials, which have a lot of carbon.

Things like straw, newspaper, and cardboard break down slower, add structure, and soak up extra moisture.

  • Green Materials:
    • Vegetable scraps
    • Fresh grass clippings
    • Coffee grounds
  • Brown Materials:
    • Dry leaves
    • Shredded newspaper
    • Cardboard (remove any tape)

Remember to shred or chop larger pieces to accelerate breakdown. The compost should maintain a dampness similar to a wrung-out sponge, so be sure to add water periodically to maintain that balance.

Items to Exclude from Compost

While composting can handle many types of organic waste, not everything belongs.

Meat, dairy, oils, and bones should never be added; they create odors and attract pests. Dairy products can also cause unwanted odors and a slow composting process.

Don’t use plants with pests because they can bring pests to your finished compost and then to your garden.

Avoid putting cat waste, which can have harmful germs, and things with pesticides in your compost to keep it organic and safe.

  • Do Not Compost:
    • Meat and bones
    • Dairy products
    • Oils and fats

Regularly turn your compost to integrate oxygen and ensure even decomposition.

By picking the right materials and keeping them balanced, your compost will turn into rich soil that’s great for your garden.

Optimizing the Composting Process

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To make rich organic compost, it’s important to know the right balance and conditions needed for the best breakdown.

Let’s explore the components that accelerate composting while maintaining its organic integrity.

Balancing Greens and Browns

Your compost needs a mix of green and brown materials. Greens, rich in nitrogen, are things like vegetable scraps and grass clippings.

Browns, rich in carbon, include dry leaves and cardboard. Try to have about 1 part green to 3 parts brown.

This mix helps the tiny organisms in the compost work well and break down the material fast.

  • Ideal Ratio:
    • Greens (Nitrogen): 1 part
    • Browns (Carbon): 3 parts

Maintaining Proper Moisture and Aeration

Moisture and airplay a pivotal role in composting. Your pile should be moist like a wrung-out sponge, ensuring environments favor microbes responsible for decomposition.

Too wet, your compost becomes anaerobic, slowing down the process and causing odors.

Aerate your compost by turning it regularly to maintain oxygen levels, which is essential in hot composting methods.

Adequate airflow can also be achieved by introducing bulky items like twigs at the bottom of the pile.

  • Compost Moisture Checklist:
    • Keep evenly moist, not soaked
    • Turn the pile to aerate
    • Observe moisture levels frequently.

Composting in Different Climates

Temperature significantly affects composting speed. In warmer climates, decomposition is faster, as heat aids in rapid microbial activity.

But even in colder conditions, composting doesn’t stop—it just slows down. Utilize insulating materials like straw to retain warmth.

Track moisture levels as well because different climates require different watering regimes.

In dry climates, your compost may need additional water, while less is often better in humid climates.

  • Climate Tips:
    • In cold weather, insulate your compost
    • In warm conditions, ensure there is shade to prevent drying
    • Adjust watering based on rainfall and humidity levels

Utilizing and Maintaining the Compost

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Creating rich, organic compost is an excellent way to recycle kitchen and yard waste into something beneficial for your garden.

It’s important to understand when your compost is ready to use and how to apply it effectively for healthy plant growth.

When Is Compost Ready to Use?

Finished compost generally looks dark, crumbly, and is devoid of any original organic material shapes. You should expect a natural, earthy smell with no remnants of food or green waste visible.

Here is a table for Compost Readiness Indicators:

AppearanceFinished compost resembles rich, dark soil without any recognizable scraps (like food or leaves). It’s reduced in volume (about 50% less than when you started).
SmellIt should smell sweet and earthy, like soil after rain. An unpleasant or rotting smell indicates that the compost is not ready.
TextureThe compost should be fluffy, crumbly, and similar in feel to dirt. It shouldn’t be slimy or clay-like.
HeatThe compost pile should not be producing much heat. If it’s cooler than 70 degrees Fahrenheit, it’s likely ready.
Screen TestWhen passed through a screen, ready compost falls through easily and appears almost fluffy.

To ensure fertile soil in your garden, consider incorporating organic soil pH adjustment methods to achieve the right balance that encourages healthy plant growth.

Applying Compost to Your Garden

Compost can be applied to your garden in various ways depending on your garden’s needs:

  • As a Soil Amendment: Work the compost into the soil a few weeks before planting to improve soil structure and nutrient content. This practice supports robust plant roots and can be enhanced by learning about organic soil amendments.
  • Mulching: Spread compost as mulch over the soil surface around existing plants to conserve moisture and suppress weeds.
  • Potting Soil: Mix compost with sand and garden soil to create a nutritious potting soil for potted plants or containers.

Remember, using compost aids in organic soil management, creating a living soil rich in microorganisms and organic matter that sustains healthy plant growth.

Utilization MethodPurposeApplication Rate
Soil AmendmentImprove structure and nutrients2-4 inches integrated into top 6-8 inches of soil
MulchMoisture conservation and weed suppression1-3 inches on top of soil around plants
Potting SoilProvide nutrients for containersMix 1 part compost to 2 parts garden soil

Composting Challenges and Solutions

Creating homemade compost is a rewarding way to reduce waste and enrich your garden’s soil. These solutions to common composting challenges will help ensure a successful and smell-free endeavor.

Dealing with Odor and Pests

Odor: A healthy compost pile should have a pleasant, earthy smell. If your compost starts to stink, it may indicate excess moisture or improper balance between greens and browns.

To mitigate the odor, adjust the balance by adding more browns like dry leaves or straw to absorb moisture and facilitate proper decomposition.

Regularly turn your compost to incorporate air and discourage anaerobic bacteria that cause foul smells.

Pests: Flies and rodents are attracted to certain materials in compost, like cooked food scraps and meats, which should be avoided.

Maintain a mix rich in greens and browns, and ensure your pile is properly covered. Utilizing a compost bin with a lid can greatly reduce pest problems.

Troubleshooting Common Composting Issues

Slow Decomposition: If your compost pile isn’t breaking down, it might lack nitrogen-rich materials or moisture.

Add more green materials such as vegetable scraps or grass clippings to boost microorganisms activity. Also, ensure the pile is moist but not soggy.

Weed Seeds: Incomplete composting can lead to weed seeds surviving in the compost.

To kill off weed seeds, the pile must reach temperatures between 130-150°F.

Turn the pile frequently to ensure even heating and decomposition throughout.

Common IssuePotential Solution
Excess MoistureAdd brown materials, turn the pile regularly.
Attracting PestsAvoid adding meats or cooked food; keep a balanced pile; use a closed bin.
Slow DecompositionAdd brown materials, and turn the pile regularly.
Presence of Weed SeedsMaintain temperatures between 130-150°F; turn pile for even heating.

Following these guidelines can ensure a more effective and smell-free composting process.

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